Module Uucp.Case

module Case: sig .. end
Case properties, mappings and foldings.

These properties can implement Unicode's default case detection, case conversion and caseless equality over Unicode text, see the examples.

References




Case properties


val is_lower : Uchar.t -> bool
is_lower u is true iff u has the Lowercase derived property.
val is_upper : Uchar.t -> bool
is_upper u is true iff u has the Uppercase derived property.
val is_cased : Uchar.t -> bool
is_cased u is true iff u has the Cased derived property.
val is_case_ignorable : Uchar.t -> bool
is_case_ignorable is true iff u has the Case_Ignorable derived property.

Case mappings and foldings

These character mapping functions return `Self whenever a character maps to itself.

module Map: sig .. end
Case mappings.
module Fold: sig .. end
Case folding.
module Nfkc_fold: sig .. end
NFKC case folding.

Examples

These examples use Uutf to fold over the characters of UTF-8 encoded OCaml strings and to UTF-8 encode mapped characters in an OCaml Buffer.t value.

Default case conversion on UTF-8 strings

The value casemap_utf_8 cmap s is the UTF-8 encoded string resulting from applying the character map cmap to every character of the UTF-8 encoded string s.

let cmap_utf_8 cmap s =
  let b = Buffer.create (String.length s * 2) in
  let rec add_map _ _ u =
    let u = match u with `Malformed _ -> Uutf.u_rep | `Uchar u -> u in
    match cmap u with
    | `Self -> Uutf.Buffer.add_utf_8 b u
    | `Uchars us -> List.iter (Uutf.Buffer.add_utf_8 b) us
  in
  Uutf.String.fold_utf_8 add_map () s; Buffer.contents b
Using the function cmap_utf_8, Unicode's default case conversions can be implemented with:
let lowercase_utf_8 s = cmap_utf_8 Uucp.Case.Map.to_lower s
let uppercase_utf_8 s = cmap_utf_8 Uucp.Case.Map.to_upper s
However strictly speaking lowercase_utf_8 is not conformant as it doesn't handle the context sensitive mapping of capital sigma U+03A3 to final sigma U+03C2.

Note that applying Unicode's default case algorithms to a normalized string does not preserve its normalization form.

Default caseless matching (equality) on UTF-8 strings

These examples use Uunf to normalize character sequences

Unicode canonical caseless matching (D145) is defined by normalizing to NFD, applying the Case_Folding mapping, normalizing again to NFD and test the result for binary equality:

let canonical_caseless_key s =
  let b = Buffer.create (String.length s * 2) in
  let to_nfd_and_utf_8 =
    let n = Uunf.create `NFD in
    let rec add v = match Uunf.add n v with
    | `Await | `End -> ()
    | `Uchar u -> Uutf.Buffer.add_utf_8 b u; add `Await
    in
    add
  in
  let add =
    let n = Uunf.create `NFD in
    let rec add v = match Uunf.add n v with
    | `Await | `End -> ()
    | `Uchar u ->
        begin match Uucp.Case.Fold.fold u with
        | `Self -> to_nfd_and_utf_8 (`Uchar u)
        | `Uchars us -> List.iter (fun u -> to_nfd_and_utf_8 (`Uchar u)) us
        end;
        add `Await
    in
    add
  in
  let add_uchar _ _ = function
  | `Malformed  _ -> add (`Uchar Uutf.u_rep)
  | `Uchar _ as u -> add u
  in
  Uutf.String.fold_utf_8 add_uchar () s;
  add `End;
  to_nfd_and_utf_8 `End;
  Buffer.contents b

let canonical_caseless_eq s0 s1 =
  canonical_caseless_key s0 = canonical_caseless_key s1
Unicode's caseless matching for identifiers (D147, see also UAX 31) is defined by normalizing to NFD, applying the NFKC_Casefold mapping and test the result for binary equality:
let id_caseless_key s =
  let b = Buffer.create (String.length s * 3) in
  let n = Uunf.create `NFD in
  let rec add v = match Uunf.add n v with
  | `Await | `End -> ()
  | `Uchar u ->
      begin match Uucp.Case.Nfkc_fold.fold u with
      | `Self -> Uutf.Buffer.add_utf_8 b u; add `Await
      | `Uchars us -> List.iter (Uutf.Buffer.add_utf_8 b) us; add `Await
      end
  in
  let add_uchar _ _ = function
  | `Malformed  _ -> add (`Uchar Uutf.u_rep)
  | `Uchar _ as u -> add u
  in
  Uutf.String.fold_utf_8 add_uchar () s;
  add `End;
  Buffer.contents b

let id_caseless_eq s0 s1 = id_caseless_key s0 = id_caseless_key s1